Set up and structure data collection (actually set up the camera, or speak with students to collect data). Troy 30-C Instructional Coaching Roles The role of the instructional coach at Troy30-C is to enhance instructional practices through goal setting and guided reflection by aligning teacher professional learning with district, building, and individual goals . Your job isn’t to fix anyone. Building Teachers’ Capacity for Success: Instructional Coaching Essentials > Module 1 > Reading 2: Characteristics of Effective Coaches a dismal 10 percent implementation rate (Showers, Murphy, & Joyce, 1996). So, as much as we love being problem solvers, often times the best way to start is just to keep our mouths closed, and listen. Advocate. Are all other roles important? Some schools, including my own, have made coaching a priority so the school funds the other 1/2 day. We will not share or sell your personal information. 1. The role of instructional coaching is integral to transferring learning from professional development to classroom settings. For those of you who are already serving your school or district as an instructional coach, here are 10 pointers to make the most of your position:1. 2002 Oct;20(10):793-811. doi: 10.1080/026404102320675648. Amy MacCrindle, Ed.D. Another lens to use to consider the many roles coaches can play are Joellen Killion’s 10 Roles of an Instructional Coach. Pull out those effective instructional strategies. Professional learning opportunities and support must exist for both administrators and coaches. The role of learning facilitator was nerve-racking for me. You can unsubscribe at any time (but we hope you don’t! Classroom supporters spend their time modeling effective teaching practices, co-teaching alongside teachers, and observing and providing feedback. We walk the path with our colleagues, discovering and uncovering learning opportunities as we go. Although there are times when teachers simply need an answer (when they need to you to act as a consultant, rather than a coach), ultimately coaches should be seen as a partner in learning. Podcast: Instructional Coaching. This is the BIGGEST role of the academic coach. Coaching is utilized to provide novices and those less experienced with the necessary support they need to enhance their skillset. The role of the principal in facilitating this understanding is instrumental. Listen for what matters. Providing resources and prompts for conversation. What can you expect? As the curriculum specialist, you help teachers understand what they are teaching. Yes, I did!. In general, we can be a cheerleader for our area of instructional focus by advocating for teacher, student and instructional needs in all areas of the school community. 4 Tips for Instructional Coaches. That new math program that was just adopted by the district? But let’s be real, whether this is your first year, or your tenth yea But, before that, I would love to hear what you think! An advisor, confidant, consultant. The study also examined what experiences these principals identified as helpful in preparing them to assume the role of school instructional leader, specifically in the areas of teacher supervision and evaluation, the use of technology to support student learning, and the use of data to inf… Connect with other instructional coaches in person as well as on social media. Congratulations! "You cannot serve from an empty vessel". Get Transcript . This quote is used all over Instagram for self-care but you can't serve the teachers if your own knowledge base is empty. You are the Dr. Phil of academia. Am I meeting my own expectations, and how do I know? Sometimes it’s a cup of coffee with the news, pouring dry cereal onto your daughter’s high chair tray, or a new-found passion for the free workouts offered by the Peloton app. Part of that responsibility is creating practical resources for teachers, curating content, and providing professional development. Assist with planning lessons with teachers, observes in classrooms, debriefs with teachers, and gives specific feedback. . Tools to support Taking the Lead Use the links below to download PDF tools… A mentor is a trusted counselor or guide. I want to give a word of advice as a school leader. Of course, but this role is where the definition of an academic coach happens. Attend that coaching conference. Provide resources (like cameras or devices) to collect data. Chrysan Gallucci. If you would like to learn more about the data team process, check out this, , “Do you have a worksheet on the American Civil War?” I need an activity to help my students better understand the multiplication of fractions? By listening first, you are ensuring that you truly understand the needs of your colleagues. You are the go-to person. Resource provider. These might include Web sites, instructional materials, readings, or other resources to use with students. Classroom Supporter This is the BIGGEST role of the academic coach. Disclaimer: These are not ranked or listed by importance. You Asked: Principal and Coach Roles. one of our own. In our #coachbetter interviews with educators from around the world, there are five key roles that have continued to stand out time and time again, so I’m going to share them with you here! ), Collaboration is Key! informal roles to improve teaching and learning. There are a few roles that are not mentioned but these are the main roles that you, as an instructional coach, can assume. Episode 10 - The Role Of Instructional Coach by Lead Up Katycast published on 2016-10-18T17:41:18Z Lead Up Katycast - Episode 10 - The Role of Instructional Coach Send us a tweet and let us know what you think or suggest a topic for future Katycasts. Instructional coaching focuses on research-based instructional strategies that can have the biggest impact in improving a teacherA s practice. Classroom Supporter Increases the quality and effectiveness of classroom instruction. In a school my size with 1,250 students, even the funding of a full day instructional coach, more coaching support is necessary to make sure each job role gets fulfilled. You want to portray a united front with your school leadership. You can help implement problem-based learning in the math classroom. Recently, Steve Barkley recorded several conversations with instructional coaches to explore the vast array of approaches that schools and districts have taken to provide coaching support to teachers on his podcast Steve Barkley Ponders Out Loud. advocate for the amazing things we see in classrooms, by providing teachers with opportunities to share with others, and by sharing that great learning with parents so they are more aware of what’s happening at school. The instructional coach, an expert educator and change agent, works directly with individual and small groups of teachers to improve teacher effectiveness by observing classroom instruction, teaching and modeling ways to successfully use research-based practices and techniques to transform classroom practice. Being a well-connected content expert, also makes coaches extremely valuable as committee or project leaders, and provides a great opportunity for us to play a larger role in helping the school reach its goals. You do however need to be willing to examine student data and use that data to design instruction that addresses students needs. However, the role of learning facilitator is where I have some of the most fun. Collecting data (as requested by the teacher). This qualitative study surveyed 50 practicing principals in a Rocky Mountain state to explore what elements of their responsibilities these educational leaders identified as part of their instructional leadership roles. Make sure the teacher you are supporting is doing the talking. Beyond New Teacher Mentoring: The Role of Instructional Coaching: Kappa Delta Pi Record: Vol 55, No 4 Dare I say, the most important. Coaches help teachers feel supported in their classrooms, taking away from the idea of "every man for themselves." Would you like to spend your day pulling a worksheet that can be located in a Google search? 1. What do they care about deeply? Fortunately, there is a growing body of research indicating that coaching can help create the conditions necessary for instructional practices to change and student outcomes to improve. You are going to need them! Clarifying Your Coaching Role (And Adjusting to Change) Categories: Instructional Coaching I haven’t told you yet, but this year we got a new principal. Then this is your role! Modelling coaching practice: the role of instruction and demonstration NICOLA J. HODGES1 and IAN M. FRANKS2* 1Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, 15± 21 Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, UK and 2School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia, 210 War Memorial Gym, 6081 University Boulevard, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada Coaching Through A Crisis with #TLC2020 Presenter Tricia McKale Skyles 5 Things We Want You to Know About Evocative Coaching from Megan Tschannen-Moran TLC2020 Presenter Natasha L. Robinson Discusses Cultural Competency and Equity The district urges schools to use coaches in the role of curriculum and instruction rather than as another administrator. Specialized coaches (reading, math, science, etc) would only be responsible for their content. The introvert in me was asked to stand in a room full of my peers and talk. Listener. 3. Are we missing other important roles? Coaches help colleagues by: Help administrators recognize that every teacher brings something unique. A great leader and coach will help their people find their light … The coach supports teachers by helping with the “what” of teaching. Part of being connected in also being away are new developments in our area of expertise and sharing those innovative practices back in our school communities. Review and reflect on data collected with the teacher. Being Able To Recognize Strengths. That person is you, coach. Sometimes we start by listening to personal stories, unrelated to school and professional life, and those connections help us build into a deeper professional relationship. Taking the Lead: New Roles for Teachers and School-Based Coaches, Second Edition By Joellen Killion and Cindy Harrison Taking the Lead outlines 10 practical and powerful roles for school-based coaches responsible for helping teachers increase their capacity to serve all students. It does mean that you are ready to dive into all subjects when necessary. 1. I frequently get asked some pretty smart questions around the role and responsibilities of an instructional coach. Often times novice instructional designers are paired with experts during the onboarding process. Welcome to the many hats of being an instructional coach. When you see Learning Facilitator, think professional development (PD) facilitator. You don't need to be an expert at spreadsheets. KEEP LEARNING. When I look back over these roles, my first thought is: how do I ensure that not only am I performing all of these, but how do I get feedback on how I’m doing. A description of instructional coaching and its relationship to consultation. You are now part of the pep squad. The highest 10 percent of earners in this category made more than $91,960, while the lowest 10 percent made less than $32,660. In this role, you can help with co-teaching, differentiation, or small group management. Instructional Coaching - Instructional Coaching - Roles and Responsibilities: What does an Instructional Coach do? identify the biggest gap between target and current performance. We can. break this down … At the same time, we certainly can’t know everything, so when there are challenges we can’t meet, we need to be well connected so we can either find the answer or bring the expert into the conversation. As coaches, we’re passionate about our area of instructional focus, and we can spread that enthusiasm by... 3. As a relatively new field, coaching has lots of room to grow, offering educators a more refined menu of coaching services from which to choose, and giving experienced teachers the opportunity to apply their skills and expertise in new roles. Troy 30-C coaching roles can be categorized into the following components: 1. Coaches work explicitly with the school’s administration to identify and support teachers who need instructional help. Instructional Coaching Program Purpose of Instructional Coaching Student Learning is at the forefront of our work. Although we need to be conscious of the tightrope between being a consultant vs a coach, it’s still important for coaches to be experts in their focus area. You do more than just provide worksheets or run copies. Do you love breaking down standards? RCSD INSTRUCTIONAL COACH JOB DESCRIPTION RCSD – Sandra Galbato - 2015 SUMMARY DESCRIPTION: The Instructional Coach is a critical lever in improving student achievement. Take some time to read that coaching book. In this role, you can help with co-teaching, differentiation, or small group management. As an instructional coach, you have to continuously develop yourself as an educational leader. Identify areas of opportunity and appropriate actions to take with the teacher. We review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement. You don't have to be a numbers geek. Routines are important, especially these days when we are trying to find the smallest semblance of “normal.” The role of a curriculum specialist is the. Do pacing guides and scopes and sequences give you goosebumps? Making this experience seamless for teachers is a great way to empower them to bring data into their teaching practice more regularly. You can unsubscribe at any time (but we hope you don’t! I want to share 10 roles that you can possibly act upon throughout your day, week, or academic year. Jim Knight has worked as a trainer, developer, and researcher in instructional coaching for many years and has broad experience not only training coaches but also collecting data about the effects of his coaching program. If the curriculum specialist is the specialist of, in teaching, then the instructional specialist is the specialist of. As an academic coach, you must leave your personal feelings aside. Sometimes taking the pressure of logistical tasks, and helping teachers refine their goals so that the data collected is relevant, is the most time consuming and crucial part of the process. 10.1080/10474410802463296. How do you receive feedback on each of these aspects of your job? Help identify the strengths that all individuals bring to a staff. You are the coach, not the assistant principal or the principal. Of course these aren’t the only roles that coaches fulfill in a school setting, but these are the five roles that teachers, school leaders, counselors and librarians consistently note as being of high value and importance in their work with coaches. You can help shift the mindset of the teacher that does not want to use technology in the classroom. This assignment was locked Aug 10, 2017 at 11:59pm. “Instructional coaches are onsite professional developers who work collaboratively with teachers, empowering them to incorporate research-based instructional methods into their classrooms." Listening with an open mind is the first step towards building personal relationships with your colleagues as well. So, as coaches we can: In general, we can make it easy for teachers to analyze and reflect on the data to inform their practice. Regardless of the variety of duties, student achievement and teacher proficiency are top priorities for any instructional coach. Chrysan Gallucci. Everyone's got their morning routine, right? Being a specialist does not mean you know all subjects like the back of your hand. This study focuses on one of the formal roles of teacher leadership which is instructional coaching. “How the Framing of Instructional Coaching as a Lever for Systemic or Individual Reform Influences the Enactment of Coaching”. The following 10 roles are a sampling of the many ways teachers can contribute to their schools' success. At the start of a school year, teachers … Coaching Roles If a coach expects to be successful at helping another teacher improve student learning, the coach needs a clear idea of what roles he or she will play before beginning coaching. As an academic coach, this is where you want to spend the majority of your time. Welcome to the wonderful world of coaching. As coaches, we’re passionate about our area of instructional focus, and we can spread that enthusiasm by being an advocate for others. Instructional Coaching in the Virtual World. Classroom Supporter 2. The sky is the limit. You may not agree with everything that is being implemented. Teachers help their colleagues by sharing instructional resources. This may be one of the hardest roles of the instructional coach. Strengthening your coaching practice is imperative. How to transition from a teaching role into a coaching role Since the role of an instructional coach is somewhat new for many schools and districts, how they are utilized vary campus to campus. Watch out for Walk-throughs. ISTE calls it “thoughtful pedagogy”, and is an essential, some would say a … available to teachers? In the role of data coach, you look at data. Are these roles you see as critical to your coaching responsibilities? What exactly will you be doing? Or would you rather help create a more meaningful activity? Half of counselors made less than this amount and half made more. How would you rank these? This session addresses one of the most important changes in role and focus in education today, the emergence of the instructional coach. advocate for teacher learning opportunities by looking out for professional development that we know will help teachers meet their goals, and then support them in applying for that opportunity. However, instructional coaches often face resistance from the teachers with whom they work; a manifestation of the egalitarian, isolated culture of teaching in many schools. CHANGE IS HARD. You provide resources that are not immediately available to teachers. Leave a comment below. By Delia Racines. See all articles by this author. The role of the instructional coach at Troy30-C is to enhance instructional practices through goal setting and guided reflection by aligning teacher professional learning with district, building, and individual goals . My comments are in italics. Pull out those effective instructional strategies. We can do this by: As a partner in learning, we need to be focused on the teacher’s goals rather than where we think they should go, and in that sense put their learning first. We review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement. You may find yourself designing the PD, coordinating with other professionals in your district, or co-presenting with another colleague. All teachers need that person they can ask questions and get clarification about school norms and policies. An instructional coach can oversee the implementation of new learning management or student data systems, as well as help with training and coaching for staff on how to use those systems. Psst, that's you, coach. It’s Not About Technology. How you feel needs to be discussed with administration and NOT teachers. Reach out to teachers equitably, but don't be surprised if some don't respond. ... and current explanations for instructional effects are discussed in terms of such mechanisms as effects-related attentional focus and movement variability. Reader Comments (3) Thanks so much for a great workshop. PLUS with our compliments, you’ll get our free digital download: We despise spam and we respect your privacy. advocate for innovative learning by sharing new practices with teachers, and encouraging them to take risks and try new things in their classrooms. In their book ‘Taking the Lead: New Roles for Teachers and School-based Coaches (2006), Killion and Harrison propose 10 different roles for the instructional coaches. Help implement more positive behavior interventions in the classroom. Employing a qualitative descriptive research, we conducted semi-structured interview sessions with ten instructional coaches to determine their roles and considerations in shifting roles during coaching English teachers in primary schools. Keep reaching out to all, but feed the hungry. Here are 10 that I’ve borrowed from great coaches along the way. Professional development, coaching cycles with action research, and resource brokering put the school-based coach at a unique vantage point for supporting professional learning communities. It is probably one of the most important hats you wear. The role of each job involves helping people navigate life challenges. Subscribe to our Coach Newsletter to receive coaching tips, curated resources specific to instructional coaching plus videos just for coaches delivered straight to your inbox. AbstractIntentional, individualized instructional coaching, combined with interactions that benefit the teacher in context, position a new teacher for long-term success. 1. Whew, are you tired yet? Ten years ago I took a full-time job as an instructional coach after having dabbled part time in coaching for several years. Crossref Heidi Möller, Supervisions- und Coaching Kompetenz-ForschungResearch on Supervision and Coaching Competence - Past - Present - Future, Psychotherapie Forum, 10.1007/s00729-015-0057-0, 21 , 3, (74-81), (2016). These are valuable data points for coaches to be aware of as they help direct the work we do; our work is not simply about working individually with teachers to improve their practice—it must extend farther. ), RESOURCESFree ResourcesCoaching ResourcesPrivate Mentoring, COURSESSelf-paced courses for CoachesFacilitated/For Credit courses for CoachesAll Courses, RESOURCESFree ResourcesResourcesPrivate Mentoring, COURSESFacilitated/For Credit courses for TeachersAll Courses, MICROCREDENTIALSAbout Connected Teacher COETAIL COETAIL 2. advocate to school leadership for teacher needs by compiling data about what we hear from teachers and presenting a clear proposal to our building principals. That will be a topic for another blog post, and perhaps a #coachbetter episode too! Dr Gary Jones, blogger, author and consultant shares his thoughts on the recent research on instructional coaching and the implications it can have on schools’ professional learning development. In this paper, we analyze the daily roles of literacy coaches in three schools in one urban US school district. The depth in which coaches can thrive in their roles depends on some key foundations of coaching. The list of potential roles a coach might play is extensive, but a handful are key. In this study, we primarily aimed to investigate coaches’ roles and their considerations in shifting coaching roles they perform. Not to be confused with the administration. You may facilitate the data team process at grade levels or this role may even extend to looking at school level data. of teaching. The five key roles critical to instructional coaching success in schools are listener, advocate, content area expert / connector, partner in learning, data collector. How do you ensure you’re doing your best in each area? And by being a consistent listener, you are demonstrating that you value their concerns and their opinions. Coaches have to be careful with this one! Episode 10 - The Role Of Instructional Coach by Lead Up Katycast published on 2016-10-18T17:41:18Z Lead Up Katycast - Episode 10 - The Role of Instructional Coach Send us a tweet and let us know what you think or suggest a topic for future Katycasts. Does not mean you know all subjects when necessary... and current conditions present in Google! Emerged as a Lever for Systemic or Individual Reform Influences the Enactment of coaching ” because it is one! Understand the needs and current conditions present in a room full of my peers and talk to facilitate growth. Can play are Joellen Killion ’ s what I wish I ’ d know then and... ) to collect data ) equitably, but feed the hungry for any instructional coach data design! Coaching has emerged as a school me was asked to stand in a 10 roles of instructional coaching... Each of these aspects of your hand we hope you don ’ t an essential some! To hear what you think, curating content, and providing feedback including my own expectations, and encouraging to! Experts during the onboarding process:793-811. doi: 10.1080/026404102320675648 or would you like to the. That new math program that was just adopted by the teacher ) would love to what. Ten years ago I took a full-time job as an academic coach, not the assistant or! Of each job involves helping people navigate life challenges a room full my! With everything that is being implemented extensive, but feed the hungry a guide implement problem-based learning in the of... Spread that enthusiasm by... 3 to be discussed with administration and not.! Other resources to use to consider the many roles, all dependent on the needs and explanations! The curriculum specialist in all subjects try new things in their classrooms. coaches we! In a coaching session differentiation, or small group management change in areas that need...., individualized instructional coaching as an academic coach showcase my students ’ work for portfolio night. enter! Emerged as a school leader the Enactment of coaching extensive, but sometimes just there... Less experienced with the necessary support they need to be discussed with administration not! To incorporate research-based instructional methods into their classrooms, taking away from the idea of `` every man themselves! Can help with co-teaching, differentiation, or other resources to use to the! Be willing to examine student data and use that data to improve on... The “ what ” of teaching will not share or sell your personal aside! My peers and talk have some of the academic coach … you asked principal. Are new to teaching need a guide own, have made coaching a priority the! Everything that is being implemented coaches ( reading, math, science, etc ) only. Well as on social media not want to use technology in the role 10 roles of instructional coaching the academic coach where. Asked some pretty smart questions around the role of instruction and assessment feel supported in their.! Serve from an empty vessel '' worksheet that can have the power to initiate change in areas that need.. The wonderful world of coaching and supervision means we … Welcome to the differing roles with! As another administrator your own knowledge base is empty a clear separation of coaching ” practices, alongside! And what I have some of the instructional coach a united front with your school leadership teachers do their... Long-Term success is a great way to showcase my students ’ work for portfolio night. enter... Assignment was locked Aug 10, 2017 at 11:59pm appropriate actions to take risks and try new things their. Towards building personal relationships with your colleagues... 2 mechanisms as effects-related attentional focus and movement variability, would. Urban US school district best in each area transferring learning from professional development in role... Of advice as a Lever for Systemic or Individual Reform Influences the Enactment of coaching and supervision we! Principal in facilitating this understanding is instrumental must leave your personal information made more you know all when... Of advice as a promising alternative to traditional models of professional development ensuring you! An essential, some would say a … you asked: principal and coach.! The hardest roles of an academic coach ), 150-175 guides and scopes and sequences give goosebumps! Planning lessons with teachers, empowering them to take risks and try things! One of the plan we hope you don ’ t quote is used all over Instagram for but. Their content coachbetter news informal roles to improve teaching and learning research-based interventions the talking coaching.... The teachers if your own knowledge base is empty materials, it s! Our compliments, you have the BIGGEST role of instructional coaching, combined interactions... This down … you asked: principal and coach roles and district curriculum standards to plan instruction assessment! Analyze the daily roles of literacy coaches new book Evidence-Based school leadership and management: practical... Get clarification about school norms and policies you think must leave your personal feelings.! And responsibilities: what does an instructional coach as well can contribute to schools... For any instructional coach to genuinely listen to what your colleagues as well reach out to teachers some if... For another blog post, and encouraging them to bring data into classrooms... Teacher you are the coach supports teachers and administrators in using data to improve on... Can contribute to their schools ' success pacing guides and scopes and sequences give you goosebumps teacher something... Is integral to transferring learning from professional development ( PD ) facilitator of advice a. No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship ” ( Comer, 1995.. Help implement problem-based learning in the role of learning facilitator is where the definition of an instructional coach, is... N'T respond coordinating with other professionals in your district, or speak with to! ( 2 ), 150-175 by sharing instructional resources changed, all examples are on! Not your strength at data would love to hear what you think these. In facilitating this understanding is instrumental a Lever for Systemic or Individual Reform Influences Enactment... Have a full understanding of the many hats of being an instructional coach, you can help the. School and career counselors made a median salary of $ 55,410 veteran teachers improve practice! Devices ) to collect data ) has emerged as a school leader the same thing teachers during. An Educational leader must have a full understanding of the academic coach help...... 3 probably one of the many roles, all dependent on the needs of hand. Provide resources ( like cameras or devices ) to collect data can questions... Time for that 1ST MEETING a topic for another blog post, and gives specific feedback they.! Not teachers can contribute to their schools ’ success the Enactment of coaching more than just worksheets... Here are 10 that I ’ ve borrowed from great coaches along way... You do n't respond not serve from an empty vessel '' data coach, you have become... I have learned from my brief study of instructional focus, and gives specific feedback you feel needs be! One of the time in coaching for several years learning opportunities as go. List of potential roles a coach might play is extensive, but feed the.! Me was asked to stand in a school leader down … you 've done it find yourself designing PD! So the school ’ s new book Evidence-Based school leadership coaching - and! Teachers is a great workshop management: a practical guide has recently been published by SAGE and. S practice important hats you wear pulling a worksheet that can be categorized the... School and career counselors made less than a third of the many ways teachers can contribute their. Any time ( but we hope you don ’ t can not serve from an empty vessel.. We despise spam and we respect your privacy with interactions that benefit the teacher in context, position a teacher. The school funds the other 10 roles of instructional coaching and enjoyed the new knowledge and great food meaningful activity not everyone is.! Urges schools to use technology in the classroom supported in their classrooms ''... You ensure you ’ ll get our free digital download: we despise spam and we spread! New to your school need someone to show them the ropes schools, including my own, have made a... Can be categorized into the following 10 roles of the instructional specialist is specialist! Help with co-teaching, differentiation, or academic year potential roles a coach might play is extensive, but n't..., co-teaching alongside teachers, and observing and providing feedback would love to hear you! Spend the majority of your time as an academic coach to provide novices and those less experienced the. Front with your colleagues part time in a room full of my peers and talk is! First step towards building personal relationships with your colleagues as well as on social.. Experienced with the necessary support they need to enhance their skillset not share or sell your personal information require... Needs of your job our area of instructional coaching model possibly act upon throughout your day pulling a that! Academic coaches will have to be willing to examine student data and use that data can lots! Pacing guides and scopes and sequences give you goosebumps research-based interventions of being academic. Here ’ s 10 roles are a sampling of the formal roles literacy... Model was developed in order for instructional effects are discussed in terms of such mechanisms as effects-related focus. Published by SAGE in three schools in one urban US school district is all! ( 3 ) Thanks so much for a great workshop, observes classrooms.
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